Truth about Joseph Smith's Beliefs on Geography of The Book of Mormon

Truth about Joseph Smith's Beliefs on Geography of The Book of Mormon

By Tyler Livingston

The contents of all BMAF publications are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and therefore do not necessarily represent the views of BMAF or The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.


Book of Mormon geography has been a source of debate for years both inside and outside of the LDS or Mormon faith.

Some groups who attempt to place The Book of Mormon in the Great Lakes area of the United States, also claiming that Joseph Smith, the Book’s translator, “knew” where BOM events took place[1]. They go so far as to say that he received authoritative revelation on the geography of The Book of Mormon and that those who do not agree with their conclusions are disparaging the Prophet[2]. This is a bold assertion and one that will be shown to be an unsubstantiated claim. In fact, it is those who ascribe no loyalty to any one “theory” that are those closest in line with the LDS Church teachings as the church takes no official position on such issues at this time.


These groups often are referred to as putting forth the “Heartland” model or theory—meaning that the Book of Mormon took place in what we would reference today as the area comprising the middle portions of the United States. Despite these claims, the LDS Church has made official statements contrary to these assertions, stating that there has never been a conclusive revelation on BOM geography.


President Joseph F. Smith was once asked to approve statements pointing out Book of Mormon events. He declined, saying that the Lord had not yet revealed it[3]. A more complete view of the historical record will show that several theories were considered and analyzed during the early days of the LDS Church by a variety of church leaders, some of those theories were even explored by Joseph Smith, prophet and president of the Church, and the individual who is often referred to as a credible source on such matters.


Joseph Smith made many statements regarding Book of Mormon geography in his life which could be interpreted as placing the events of this ancient text all over North and South America[4]. It is the practice of those espousing this “heartland” model, to only evaluate and utilize the statements from Joseph Smith which agree with their geographical theory while ignoring statements which place The Book of Mormon in other regions including Mesoamerica or elsewhere in the western hemisphere.


While acknowledging the fact that Joseph Smith drew correlations between many native cultures throughout the western hemisphere and Book of Mormon cultures, they seem to represent a fluid opinion and while offer no definitive or indisputable declaration through prophetic authority. Here are a few examples of this which could lead some to place BOM events in or around Mesoamerica.


In 1841 The Prophet Joseph Smith was given a two-volume set of books written by John Lloyd Stephens that told about Stephens’s travels in Mesoamerica and the discovery of ancient ruins and vanished civilizations. These were purchased by Bishop John Bernhisel in New York and delivered by Wilford Woodruff into Josephs hands around October of that year. These books were filled with pictures that were drawn by Frederick Catherwood, an artist who accompanied Stephens. The pictures revealed temples and cities that had been lost in the jungles of Mesoamerica for centuries. Joseph Smith wrote a letter regarding these books to Bishop Bernhisel in November which read:


"I received your kind present by the hand of Er Woodruff & feel myself under many obligations for this mark of your esteem & friendship which to me is the more interesting as it unfolds & developes many things that are of great importance to this generation & corresponds with & supports the testimony of the Book of Mormon; I have read the volumes with the greatest interest & pleasure & must say that of all histories that have been written pertaining to the antiquities of this country it is the most correct luminous & comprihensive."[5]

There are also many statements that were published in the Church’s publication of the day, the Times and Seasons. In 1842 it was said that this periodical would be “the most interesting and useful religious journal of the day.”[6]


Joseph Smith worked as the Editor in Chief of Times and Seasons from March to November of 1842. He would also author many articles and publish them under his own guidance. He wrote the following:


"Stephens and Catherwood's researches in Central America abundantly testify of this thing. The stupendous ruins, the elegant sculpture, and the magnificence of the ruins of Guatamala, and other cities, corroborate this statement, and show that a great and mighty people-men of great minds, clear intellect, bright genius, and comprehensive designs inhabited this continent. Their ruins speak of their greatness; the Book of Mormen [Mormon} unfolds their history"[7]


In June 1842, the Times and Seasons, Joseph Smith wrote "the Mexican records agree so well with the words of the book of Ether (found by the people of Limhi, which is contained in the Book of Mormon) in relation to the confounding of languages" and included a lengthy extract from the Book of Ether. The editorial continues by claiming that   "The coincidence is so striking that further comment is unnecessary"[8]


One quote from Joseph Smith contained in the Wentworth letter which has been used by North American theorists to support their theory, actually has geographical implications that extends beyond the borders of the United States. They claim that Joseph Smith uses the term “American continent” when describing the location of Zion in an attempt to bolster their theory. But, the original letter sent to Mr. Wentworth had the words "this continent" and not

"American continent." [9]

“This continent” is a term or reference that can encompass all of Central and North or South America. From the Webster dictionary of Joseph Smiths day:


"One of the great continents … [it] being about nine thousand miles in length. Its breadth at Darien [Panama] is narrowed to about forty-five miles, but at the northern extremity [Canada] is nearly four thousand miles. From Darien [Panama] to the North, the continent is called North America, and to the South is called South America"[10]


Joseph Smith also used the term "this continent" to describe Mesoamerica. "The Mexican records agree so well with the book of Ether…Here, then, we have two records found upon this continent, that go to support the words of eternal truth"[11]

Joseph Smith also wrote: “Mr. Stephens’ great developments of antiquities are made bare to the eyes of all the people by reading the history of the Nephites in the Book of Mormon. They lived about the narrow neck of land, which now embraces Central America, with all the cities that can be found.”[12]

“Since our ‘Extract’ was published from Mr. Stephens’ ‘Incidents of Travel,’ &c., we have found another important fact relating to the truth of the Book of Mormon…The city of Zarahemla, burnt at the crucifixion of the Savior, and rebuilt afterwards, stood upon this land. . . . It is certainly a good thing for the excellency and veracity, of the divine authenticity of the Book of Mormon, that the ruins of Zarahemla have been found where the Nephites left them:”[13]


Once these discoveries in Mesoamerica were set forth by the Prophet and other leaders of the Church, they were commanded by God to present discoveries relating to ancient texts and civilizations, including those proposed as support for the authenticity of The Book of Mormon, to the world. According to a revelation from God, Joseph Smith was to establish a museum in Nauvoo to house “precious things, such as antiquities…as well as inscriptions and hieroglyphics, for the purpose of establishing a Museum of the great things of God…ancient records, manuscripts, paintings and hieroglyphics.”[14]

Because these statements seem to contradict some theories such as the “heartland” of America theory, these proponents must find a way to dismiss them. They have sought to do this in two main ways.

1.  Claiming Joseph did not author the articles because he was in ‘hiding’ during the time when only 3 of these articles were published

2.  That the articles were not authored by Joseph Smith because he signed them as “Editor” not Joseph Smith


As we examine the evidence you will see that even these arguments fail to stand after a little scrutiny. Joseph Smith was in hiding during the time the editorials were written on Sept 1, Sept 15, and Oct 15th, yet, there is no indication that he ever gave up his duties as Prophet or Chief Editor. Joseph Smith’s journals are available and in them he gives an account of what he did. His journal claims that Joseph did all of the following:

-Spent many days at home

-posed for a portrait for several days

-wrote that it was “business as usual”

-Had several meetings with John Taylor who worked at the printing office and helped publish the Times and Seasons and counseled him on the “printing office”

-Gave sermons

and so on…[15]

While he would occasionally leave and actually go in “hiding” when there was call for such, for the most part it was business as usual for Joseph. We have no indication that he abandoned any of his duties, including his position as Editor-In-Chief with the Times and Seasons.

Wilford Woodruff and John Taylor, both of whom helped Joseph Smith with printing the Times and Seasons, were stricken with sickness and had been absent from the printing office in September during the time when articles inferring The Book of Mormon as having Mesoamerican connections were printed. This would have left the Prophet to bear most of the editorial burden alone for an extensive period of time.


Even if he was in hiding and did not fulfil his duties, there are many other articles and letters that are being ignored by promoters of the Heartland theory which were published by Joseph Smith that place The Book of Mormon in Mesoamerica and elsewhere. We must look at all the evidence and not just what agrees with us.


-How do we know that the “Ed” given at the end of these Times and Seasons articles was Joseph Smith?

Joseph Smith began to fill the position of Editor in Chief in March of 1842. He wrote “This paper commences my editorial career; I alone stand responsible for it, and shall do for all papers having my signature henceforward. I am not responsible for the publication, or arrangement of the former paper; the matter did not come under my supervision.”[16]


Joseph Smith stated he was completely responsible for the contents of the Times and Seasons while he was Editor and would add his signature as evidence of this.

Since this was a publication, a handwritten signature was not practical. So editors would use a signature block to add their signatures to their periodicals as a stamp of approval.  Joseph Smith’s signature appeared in all editions of the Times and Seasons save the August 1, 1842 edition. His signature is found in the all of the editions which contain articles suggesting a connection to The Book of Mormon with Mesoamerica, signifying that, according to Joseph Smith’s own words, he “is responsible for it.” This means that he read (if not wrote) these articles, found them to be worthy of printing, and published them in this Church publication.

Now onto the question, who authored these articles?

Some of these articles in the Times and Seasons were unsigned so it is difficult to say for certain who wrote them, but several of these articles on Mesoamerica and The Book of Mormon are signed. An article dating July 15, 1842 is one of these.  It states that  “the magnificence of the ruins of Guatamala, and other cities, corroborate this statement, and show that a great and mighty people — men of great minds, clear intellect, bright genius, and comprehensive designs inhabited this continent. Their ruins speak of their greatness; the Book of Mormon unfolds their history. — ED.[17]

We see that it is signed as “Ed.” This is an abbreviation for “Editor” which is the position that Joseph Smith held during this time. We have record from Joseph Smith himself that he uses “Ed” as a signature on other occassions.  On April 1, 1842 there is an article called “Try the Spirits” which is only signed as “Ed”. But we learn from the History of the Church that Joseph Smith authored this article[18]. This shows a direct correlation between Joseph Smith and the “Ed” signature of the Times and Seasons.





If we look at the two unsigned articles written on Sept 15 and Oct 15, 1842 and use word print analysis, we are able to determine who is the probable author. Every writer is unique in their speech and leaves a “fingerprint of words” when they write. This analysis has recently been used to determine that the famous author JK Rowling published under a different name and has also been used to determine that The Book of Mormon was not written by Joseph Smith but by multiple authors.[19]


These analytical methods were used on the two articles in question and both studies found conclusively that Joseph Smith authored them, or at least approved these articles for publication. One of these articles which was published by the Church owned Neal A. Maxwell Institute at BYU which states “"Our analysis suggests that the editorials on the Central America ruins and the Book of Mormon, published during Joseph Smith's tenure as editor of the Times and Seasons show a strong alignment with his personal writing style and the editorials to which he signed his name. Consequently, the evidence points to Joseph Smith as the author of the Central America editorials. Even if the Central America editorials were a collaborative work, that still does not reduce the authoritative nature of the statements in the articles since Joseph clearly stated that he took full responsibility for what was published in the paper under his editorship. So, whether he penned the words in their entirety or only partially or even not at all, he authorized the publication of the words and thereby made them his own, since he stated about the content of the paper 'I alone stand for it.' Claims that Joseph Smith was unaware of what was written in the Central America editorials, or what he considered their geographical opinions and interpretations to be inconsistent with his revelations, is not sustained by the historical and stylometric evidence."[20]


Those who seek to discount the authorship of these articles also argue that it was John Taylor who actually authored these articles. Again, there are indisputable letters from Joseph Smith which show Joseph Smith, at this time, making a connection with The Book of Mormon being in Mesoamerica, so even if this was the case, we still have evidence of Joseph Smith supporting a Mesoamerican setting for The Book of Mormon. Even if John Taylor wrote the articles and publicly contradicting a statement of Joseph Smith, it would seem incongruent for Joseph Smith to appoint Taylor as the Editor-in-Chief of the Times and Seasons only 2 weeks after then Apostle John Taylor published such information. Yet this is exactly what happened.  Joseph wrote a farewell note in the November, 1842 Times and Seasons which praised John Taylor and his competency as he appointed him as his successor as Editor-in-Chief.

“I have appointed Elder John Taylor, who is less encumbered and fully competent to assume the responsibilities of that office, and I doubt not but that he will give satisfaction to the patrons of the paper. As this number commences a new volume, it also commences his editorial career. Joseph Smith.”[21]



John Taylor later confirmed Joseph’s previous content ownership with writing the following, “The patrons of the Times and Seasons will unquestionably be painfully disappointed on reading the above announcement. We know of no one so competent as President Joseph Smith to fill the editorial chair, of which the papers that have been issued since he has been editor are sufficient evidence.


We do not profess to be able to tread in the steps, nor to meet the expectation of the subscribers of this paper so fully as our able, learned and talented prophet, who is now retiring from the field; but as he has promised to us the priviledge [privilege] of referring to his writings, books, &c., together with his valuable counsel, when needed, and also to contribute to its columns with his pen when at leisure, we are in hopes that with his assistence[assistance], and other resources that we have at our command, that the Times and Seasons will continue to be a valuable periodical, and interesting to its numerous readers. JOHN TAYLOR”[22]


Taylor also states that Joseph Smith will allow them access to his “books.” This most certainly would include Stephens and Catherwoods books on their Mesoamerican travels. We see that he did not waste any time on using it because in this very same issue another article is written called “Ruins Recently Discovered in Yucatan Mexico” which draws parallels between The Book of Mormon and Mesoamerica. From that time forward, John Taylor continued to write articles and forward a Mesoamerican setting for The Book of Mormon.


John Taylor and other apostles publicly taught and published a Mesoamerican setting for The book of Mormon and were not corrected for teaching false doctrine. Not only was John Taylor not rebuked, but he and countless others, including Joseph Smith himself, continued to forward a Mesoamerican setting for The Book of Mormon. John Taylor wrote “This is a work [referring to Incidents and Travel in Central America] that ought to be in the hands of every Latter Day Saint; corroborating , as it does the history of the Book of Mormon. There is no stronger circumstancial [sic] evidence of the authenticity of the latter book, can be given, than that contained in Mr. Stephens’ works.”[23]

It wasn't until later, as quoted before, that Prophet and President Joseph F. Smith disavowed that any discussion on the matter of geography was not revelation, thus relegating such to be opinion, not doctrine.


Other statements made by contemporaries of Joseph Smith offered statements that suggest that Book of Mormon events took place in or even further south of Central America. Brigham Young  stated, “I look forward to the time when the settlements of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints will extend right through to the City of Old Mexico, and from thence on through Central America to the land where the Nephites flourished in the Golden era of their history.”[24]

Apostle Parley P Pratt reflected his impressions that such discoveries by Stephens and Catherwood speak to Joseph’s prophetic work with bringing forth the Book of Mormon as such ancient civilizations were not known in their day, “I say it is remarkable that Mr. Smith, in translating the Book of Mormon from 1827 to 1830, should mention the names and circumstances of those towns and fortifications in this very section of country, where a Mr. Stephens, ten years afterwards, penetrated a dense forest, till then unexplored by modern travellers, and actually finds the ruins of those very cities mentioned by Mormon.”[25]



John Taylor again wrote Joseph Smith was "one of the greatest men that ever lived on the earth” brought “forth the Book of Mormon, which gives the true history of the natives of this continent; their ancient glory and cities:—which cities have been discovered by Mr Ste[ph]ens in Central America, exactly where the Book of Mormon left them”[26]


Multiple sources seem to hold up a faithful position for members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to view Book of Mormon geography as taking place outside of what is known today as the United States of America. With new discoveries came new conclusions as members of the Church at all levels seemed keen on finding secular or scientific support of the Book of Mormon. While pieces of information continue to be gathered from a variety of sources, no one theory group can claim divine authority for the declaration of Book of Mormon Geography, especially when compelling sources leave room for many theories to exist in faithful discourse. It is the right and purview of the President and Prophet of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to make such an authoritative claim binding on the world.


In summary, the Church’s official position on Book of Mormon geography is that there is no claim as to where The Book of Mormon took place, and that such has not been revealed. Prophets and Apostles have speculated on its whereabouts since the beginning of the Church but there has never been a revelation concluding a discussion on the subject. These well intentioned seekers of truth offer opinions that have been varied and sometimes contradict each other. However, if a group asserts that their Book of Mormon geography theory is the only theory that has divine approval and that to distance or disagree with such a theory is to call in question one’s faith, is to exact a sweeping judgement and condemnation that is not their right to exercise. There is little support in considering Book of Mormon geography as a matter faithful discipleship. If one wishes to be considered a faithful member of the Church, there is room enough for multiple theories to be in play as the Church, or any of its leaders, have made no official position endorsing one theory as the correct theory, or claiming divine revelation thus dismissing all others theories that would oppose such as revelation.







Aug 20th spent the day in his business office, and that evening had an interview with “Hyrum, William Law, Wilson Law, Newel K. Whitney and George Miller, on the illegality of the proceedings of our persecutors.”

Appointed Bishops, ordained Amasa Lyman, demoted John Bennet and Signey Rigdon re-affirmed faith in front of the “saints”


Aug 22nd- received another visit from Temperance Mack, went back to Nauvoo (when did he leave?) After receiving a letter from Emma. After dark, returned home.


Aug. 24th-At home all day; received a visit from Brothers Newel K. Whitney and Isaac Morley.

Aug. 26th- at home all day, had a meeting with some of the twelve (John Taylor was a 12 at the time)


Aug 27th-In the assembly room with some of the Twelve and others, who were preparing affidavits for the press.


Aug. 28th-At home. James Whitehead, Peter Melling, Tarleton Lewis, and Ezra Strong were received into the High Priests' quorum at Nauvoo


Aug 29th–went on the “stand” after Hyrum and spoke to the saints whom he hasn’t seen in three weeks. Said “I had been in Nauvoo all the while, and outwitted Bennett's associates, and attended to my own business in the city all the time.”

30th- at home all day


31st- at home, went for walk, went to relief society



Sept 1st- D/C 127:1 When I learn that the storm is fully blown over, then I will return to you again.


Sept. 2nd - spent the day at homeA report reached the city this afternoon that the sheriff was on his way to Nauvoo with an armed force.


Sept. 3rd- In the morning at home, in company with John F. Boynton. President Smith, accompanied by Brother Erastus Derby, left Brother Whitney's about nine o'clock, and went to Brother Edward Hunter's, where he was welcomed, and made comfortable by the family, and where he can be kept safe from the hands of his enemies

 Sept. 6th- writes letter to the Church concerning baptisms for the dead, D/C 128

In the evening, William Clayton and Bishop Whitney called to see me concerning a settlement with Edward Hunter. Also Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and Amasa Lyman, called to counsel concerning their mission to the branches and people abroad.


Sept. 7th- Early this morning Elders Adams and Rogers, of New York, brought me several letters—one from Dr. Willard Richards..Brothers Adams and Rogers called again this afternoon, and I related to them many interpositions of Divine Providence in my favor, &c.


Sept. 8th-Prophet writes letter to James Arlington Bennet “You speak also of Elder Foster, President of the Church in New York, in high terms; and of Dr. Bernhisel, in New York. These men I am acquainted with by information; and it warms my heart to know that you speak well of them, and, as you say, could be willing to associate with them for ever”


Sept. 9th- At 10 p.m. I received a very interesting visit from Emma, Amasa Lyman, George A. Smith and Wilson Law. After a conversation of two hours, I accompanied the brethren and Emma to my house, remaining there a few minutes to offer a blessing upon the heads of my sleeping children; then called a few minutes at the house of my cousin George A. Smith, on my way to my retreat at Edward Hunter's. John D. Parker accompanied me as guard.


Sept. 10.—Heber C. Kimball, George A. Smith, and Amasa Lyman started on their mission, and proceeded as far as Lima, where they met Brigham Young, who was preaching to a congregation. This was the day for the training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion; and, lest I should be observed by the multitude passing and repassing, I kept very still. After dark, my wife sent a messenger and requested me to return home, as she thought I would be as safe there as anywhere; and I went safely home undiscovered.


Sept. 11th-—I was at home all day


Sept 12th. was at home all day in company with Brothers Adams and Rogers


Sept 13th -At home all day. Settled with Edward Hunter


Sept 14th-At home. Mr. Remmick gave me a deed of one half his landed property in Keokuk, though it will be a long time, if ever, before it will be of any benefit to me. Had a consultation with Calvin A. Warren, Esq. In the evening I received the following letter from General James Arlington Bennett:


Thursday, 15.—In council with C. A. Warren, Esq. Also counseled Uncle John Smith and Brother Daniel C. Davis to move immediately to Keokuk, and help to build up a city.

 Friday, 16.—At home with Brother Rogers, who was painting my likeness.



Saturday, 17.—I was at home with Brother Rogers, who continued painting my portrait. Elder William Clayton wrote Governor Carlin a long letter, showing up the Missouri persecution and my sufferings in their true colors.


Sunday, 18.—At home. In the evening, received a visit from my mother.

Monday, 19, and Tuesday, 20.—With Brother Rogers, painting at my house.

Wednesday, 21.—In the large room over the store. In the evening had a visit from Elder John Taylor, who is just recovering from a long and very severe attack of sickness. I counseled Elder Taylor concerning the printing office, removing one press to Keokuk, &c.

Thursday, 22.—At home, arranging with Remmick concerning moving printing press to Keokuk, buying paper, &c.

Friday, 23.—At home. Visited by Elder Taylor.              

24th-At home. Had a visit from Mr. Joseph Murdock, Sen., and lady concerning some land, &c., at St. Joseph.

Sunday, 25.—At the Grove. Spoke more than two hours, chiefly on the subject of persecution              

27th At home. Nothing of importance transpired

Thursday, 29.—This day, Emma began to be sick with fever; consequently I kept in the house with her all day.

Friday, 30.—Emma is no better. I was with her all day.               

Saturday, October 1.—This morning I had a very severe pain in my left side, and was not able to be about. Emma sick as usual. I had previously sent for the Temple committee to balance their accounts and ascertain how the Temple business was going on. Some reports had been circulated that the committee was not making a righteous disposition of property consecrated for the building of the Temple, and there appeared to be some dissatisfaction amongst the laborers. After carefully examining the accounts and enquiring into the manner of the proceedings of the committee, I expressed myself perfectly satisfied with them and their works. The books were balanced between the trustee and committee, and the wages of all agreed upon.


 I said to the brethren that I was amenable to the state for the faithful discharge of my duties as trustee-in-trust, and that the Temple committee were accountable to me, and to no other authority; and they must not take notice of any complaints from any source, but let the complaints be made to me, if any were needed, and I would make things right. The parties separated perfectly satisfied, and I remarked that I would have a notice published, stating that I had examined their accounts and was satisfied, &c. It was also agreed that the recorder's office should be moved to the Temple, for the convenience of all.

In this day's Wasp I noticed the following letter from Elder Pratt:


Oct 2nd-The Quincy Whig also stated that Governor Reynolds has offered a reward, and published the governor's proclamation offering a reward of $300 for Joseph Smith, Jun., and $300 for Orrin P. Rockwell. Pg 166

Monday, 3.—Emma was a little better. I was with her all day.

Tuesday, 4.—Emma is very sick again. I attended with her all the day, being somewhat poorly myself.

Wednesday, 5.—My dear Emma was worse. Many fears were entertained that she would not recover.

Thursday, 6.—Emma is better; and although it is the day on which she generally grows worse, yet she appears considerably easier            

7th- Accordingly, at twenty minutes after eight o'clock in the evening, I started away in company with Brothers John Taylor Wilson Law, and John D. Parker, and traveled through the night and part of next day; and, after a tedious journey, arrived at Father James Taylor's well and in good spirits.

This day the teachers met in Nauvoo, and organized into a quorum, by appointing Elisha Averett, president; James Huntsman and Elijah Averett, counselors ; Samuel Eggleston, scribe; and eleven members.

Monday, 10.—Elder Taylor returned to Nauvoo and found Emma gaining slowly             

11th- published article in Times and Seasons about Temple Commiteed affairs               

16th- I copy the following from the New York Herald               

Thursday, 20.—Early this morning I arrived at home on a visit to my family. During the day I was visited by several of the brethren, who rejoiced to see me once more.





[1] These claims are common by Rodney Meldrum of the Foundation for Indigenous Research and Mormonism Foundation (the redundancy is noted) or Firm Foundation.

[2] Rodney Meldrum, DNA Evidence for Book of Mormon Geography: New scientific support for the truthfulness of the Book of Mormon; Correlation and Verification through DNA, Prophetic, Scriptural, Historical, Climatological, Archaeological, Social, and Cultural Evidence (Rodney Meldrum, 2007), mail-order DVD. Also in a Seminar presentation by "The FIRM Foundation," (6 March 2009)

[3] .  “Route Traveled by Lehi and his Company,” Instructor, April 1938, 160

[5] Joseph Smith, "Church History," Times and Seasons 3 no. 9 (1 March 1842), 707, Joseph Smith, The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, compiled and edited by Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1984), 501 - 502.

[6] Church History 2:552-557

[7] American Antiquities," Times and Seasons 3/18 (15 July 1842): 860

[8] Traits of the Mosaic History, Found Among the Aztaeca Nations, Times and Seasons, vol. III no. 16 Pg 820

[9] Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, p. 219. The Times and Seasons letter also had "this continent" 3:710.

[10] Noah Webster 1828, American Dictionary of the English Language, Reprinted 4th Edition 1885 (San Francisco, F.A.C.E, 1828

[11] Traits of the Mosaic History, Found Among the Aztaeca Nations, Times and Seasons, vol. III no. 16 Pg 820

[12] Times and Seasons, September 15, 1842, 3:914–15

[13] Times and Seasons, October 1, 1842, 3:927

[14] Times and Seasons 4:22 (October 1, 1843): 346-347

[15] -According to Church History as well as the journals of Joseph Smith, we can learn exactly what he was doing during the time he was in “hiding”              

[16] Times and Seasons 3/9 (15 March 1842): 710.

[17] Times and Seasons (15 July 1842)

[18] History of Church 4:571

[19] Blair Hodges, The Wizard and the Seer: Wordprint Studies in the news again,

[20] Roper and Fields, Joseph Smith, the Times and Seasons, and Central  American Ruins Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration  Scripture 22/2 (2013): 84–97. This can be found online here:

[21] “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 8.

[22]  “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons 4/1 (15 November 1842): 8.

[23] Times and Seasons Oct 1, 1843. No. 22

[24] Leonard Arrington "Brigham Young: American Moses” p. 382

[25] Parley P. Pratt, "Ruins in Central America," Millennial Star 2/11 (March 1842): 165

[26] John Taylor (editor),"The Mormon Prophet," Times and Seasons 6 (1 April 1845): 855


Livingston, Tyler